Time Waits For No One

Posted on 10th May 2014

When I relaunched the CPAN Testers sites back in 2008, I was in a position to be responsible for 3 servers, the CPAN Testers server, the Birmingham Perl Mongers server, and my own server. While managing them wasn't too bad, I did think it would be useful having some sort of monitoring system that could help me keep an eye on them. After talking to a few people, the two key systems most keenly suggested were Nagios and Munin. Most seemed to favour Munin, so I gave it a go. Sure enough it was pretty easy to set up, and I was able to monitor the servers, using my home server to monitor them. However, there was one area of monitoring that wasn't covered. The performance of the websites.

At the time I had around 10-20 sites up and running, and the default plugins didn't provide the sort of monitoring I was looking for. After some searching I found a script written by Nicolas Mendoza. The script not only got me started, but helped to make clear how easy it was to write a Munin plugin. However, the script as was, didn't suit my needs exactly, so had to make several tweaks. I then found myself copying the file around for each website, which seem a bit unnecessary. So I wrote what was to become Munin::Plugin::ApacheRequest. Following the Hubris and DRY principles copying the script around just didn't make sense, and being able to upgrade via a Perl Module on each server, was far easier than updating the 30+ scripts for the sites I now manage.

Although the module still contains the original intention of the script, how it does it has changed. The magic still happens in the script itself.

To start with an example, this is the current script to monitor the CPAN Testers Reports site:

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
use Munin::Plugin::ApacheRequest;
my ($VHOST) = ($0 =~ /_([^_]+)$/);
Munin::Plugin::ApacheRequest::Run($VHOST,1000);

Part of the magic is in the name of the script. This one is 'apache_request_reports'. The script extracts the last section of the name, in this case 'reports', and passes that to Run() as the name of the virtual host. If you wish to name the scripts slightly differently, you only need to amend this line to extract the name of your virtual host as appropriate. If you only have one website you may wish to name the host explicity, but then if you create more it does mean you will need to edit each file, which is what I wanted to avoid. All I do now is copy an existing file to one to represent the new virtual host when I create a new website, and Munin automatically adds it to the list.

Munin::Plugin::ApacheRequest does make some assumptions, one of which is where you locate the log files, and how you name them for each virtual host. On my servers '/var/www/' contains all the virtual hosts (/var/www/reports, in this example), and '/var/www/logs/' contains the logs. I also use a conventional naming system for the logs, so '/var/www/logs/reports-access.log' is the Access Log for the CPAN Testers Reports site. Should you have a different path or naming format for your logs, you can alter the internal variable $ACCESS_LOG_PATTERN to the format you wish. Note that this is a sprintf format, and the first '%s' in the format string is replaced by the virtual host name. If you only have one website, you can change the format string to the specific path and file of the log, and no string interpolation is done.

The log format used is quite significant, and when you describe the LogFormat for your Access Log in the Apache config file, you will need to use an extended format type. The field to show the time taken to execute a request is needed, which is normally set using the %T (seconds) or %D (microseconds) format option (see also Apache Log Formats). For example my logs use the following:

LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-agent}i\" %T %v"

The second to last field is our time field. In Munin::Plugin::ApacheRequest, this is stored in the $TIME_FIELD_INDEX variable. By default this is -2, assuming a similar log format as above. If you have a different format, where the execution time is in another position, like $ACCESS_LOG_PATTERN, you can change this in your script before calling Run(). A positive number assumes a column left to right, while a negative number assumes a column right to left.

The last number passed to the Run() method, determines the number of lines read for the access log to describe the average execution time. For high hit rate sites, you may wish this to be a higher number, but as most of my sites are not that frequently visited, 1000 seems to be a reasonable number.

The config statements that are generated for the Munin master monitor are currently hardcoded with values. This will change in a future version. For the example above the config produced reads as:

graph_title reports ave msecs last 1000 requests
graph_args --base 1000
graph_scale no
graph_vlabel Average request time (msec)
graph_category Apache
graph_info This graph shows average request times for the last 1000 requests
images.warning 30000000
images.critical 60000000
total.warning 10000000
total.critical 60000000

The highlighted values are interpolated from the arguments passed to Run(). In a future version I want to be able to allow you to reconfigure the warning and critical values and the graph base value, should you wish to.

I have now been using Munin::Plugin::ApacheRequest and the associated scripts for 6 years now, and it has proved very successful. I have thought about releasing the module to CPAN previously, and have made several attempts to contact Nicolas over the years, but have never had a reply. I know he was working for Opera when he released his script, but have no idea of his whereabouts now. As the script contained no licensing information, I was also unsure what licensing he had intended the code to be. I hope he doesn't mind me having adapted his original script, that I'm now releasing the code under the Artistic License v2.

Although I haven't been able to contact Nicolas, I would like to thank him for releasing his original script. If I hadn't have found it, it is unlikely I would have found a way to write a Munin plugin myself to do Apache website monitoring. With his headstart, I discovered how to write Munic plugins, and can now set up monitor of new websites within a few seconds. Thanks Nicolas.

Comments

Nice evolution

Good to see the my script helped you out :-)

Posted by Nicolas Mendoza on Wednesday, 23rd July 2014


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